Multiple Factor Theory Definition

A Harvard University study of 41 schools that used the theory concluded that there is “a culture of hard work, respect and care; a faculty that worked together and learned from each other; Classrooms that engage students through limited but meaningful decisions, and that place a strong emphasis on enabling students to do quality work. (Kornhaber, 2004) Among many other factors, the Gluecks also provided biological and psychological explanations for the deviations of their test group. They conclude: when a person is asked to quickly pronounce several isolated words or sentences, verbal fluency comes into play; A person with high verbal fluency may excel at this task, while the person with low verbal fluency may have difficulty in this task. This factor is responsible for the person`s communication skills. Tests used to measure this factor may involve asking participants to quickly think of words that begin or end with a particular letter. Many studies have been developed on the basis of the multifactorial approach. As early as 1925, Cyril Burt linked crime to 170 different factors. One of the best-known researchers in this field is Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck, who established prognostic factors through longitudinal studies between 1939 and 1948. The couple was awarded the Beccaria Medal in 1964 for their work predicting crime. Because of the controversy over the structure of intelligence, other psychologists have also published their relevant research.

In addition to Charles Spearman, three others developed a hypothesis about the structure of intelligence. L. L. Thurstone tested subjects on 56 different skills; From his data, he identified seven primary mental abilities related to intelligence. He classified them as spatial abilities, numerical abilities, verbal fluency, memory, perceptual speed, verbal comprehension, and inductive reasoning. Other researchers interested in this new research study analyzed Thurstone`s data and found that those who scored high in one category often scored well in the others. [6] This finding supports the fact that there is an underlying factor influencing them, namely G. Gardner, H. (1993b) Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.

Educational institutions have traditionally emphasized counting, reading and writing skills related to logical and linguistic intelligence. Many students do quite well in these areas and do quite well on IQ tests. But there are students who don`t. Gardner`s theory holds that these students will have the opportunity to excel if educational institutions have a broader view of what intelligence is. Different methods must be used, exercises and activities that reach all students and not only those that are characterized by linguistic and logical intelligence. However, most teachers already need to know that students learn in different ways. This theory offers them little that they do not already know. The theory of multiple intelligence (MIT) was developed by Dr.

Edward L. Thorndike in the early 20th century. From the above, it becomes clear that the Glück couple`s conclusions do not provide a purely biological-deterministic explanation of delinquent behavior. Biological factors play a role alongside a number of social factors in their multifactorial model. The classification of the multifactorial approach as a theory of biological criminality nevertheless seems justified, since its prognostic tables are based on a simplified behaviorist vision. Their explanatory model is based on an individual etiological view that understands crime as a social disease. With their panel studies, the Gluecks tried to find a “cure” for the “sick” offender by prosecuting the (former) offenders. This involves a person`s ability to quickly recognize and compare specific images, numbers, or letters, and accurately correct different types of content.

Tests such as image recognition, quickly crossing certain letters in the number series, and searching for certain words in paragraphs are used to measure the person`s perceptual speed factor. It refers to a person`s ability to solve various general or ability problems. This factor can be assessed by analyzing the individual`s reactions to various hypothetical problems and his ability to draw the conclusion. The research has been adapted to integrate modern psychological problems into Spearman`s two-factor theory of intelligence. Nature versus Nurture is a topic that has been studied using Spearman`s g-factor. Research shows that although environmental factors affect the g-factor differently, it has been found that it is affected when it is affected early in life, rather than in adulthood, where there is little or no impact. [11] It has been documented that genetic influence strongly influences the g-factor on intelligence. [11] Robert Sternberg agreed with Gardner that there are multiple intelligences, but he limited its scope in his triarchic theory of intelligence to only three: analytical, creative, and practical. He classified analytical intelligence as problem-solving skills in tests and academics.

Creative intelligence is how people react adaptively in new situations or create new ideas. Practical intelligence is defined as the everyday logic used when several solutions or decisions are possible. [6] When Sternberg analyzed his data, he was surprised by the relationship between the three intelligences. The data was similar to what other psychologists found. The three mental abilities were strongly correlated with each other and there was evidence that one fundamental factor, g, was the main influence. [2] This theory is still very present in modern psychology today. Researchers study this theory and recreate it in modern research. The g-factor is still frequently studied in current research. For example, a study may use and compare various other similar intelligence measures. Scales such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children have been compared to Spearman`s g, showing that statistical significance decreases. [10] Thorndike`s theory of multiple intelligence is a theory of intelligence as a set of abilities, each of which can be measured by its own test. Each skill has a specific function that is performed more or less efficiently by the individual.

This theory is an important contribution to the understanding of human intelligence, especially in relation to pedagogy and psychology. The theory of multiple intelligence Multiple intelligences (MI) are the ability to think in different ways. Although Gardner`s theory of multiple types of intelligence can be blamed for broadening the view of intelligence, the problem is the confusion of different types of intelligence. Mike Anderson points out that Gardner`s types of intelligence are ill-defined – they are “sometimes a behaviour, sometimes a cognitive process, and sometimes a structure in the brain” (1992, p. 67). Anderson`s theory is based on the idea of general intelligence, a classical view proposed by Louis Thurstone and others. Stephen Ceci developed a theory that suggests that intelligence relies on multiple cognitive potentials. These potentials are biologically grounded, but their expression depends on the knowledge that an individual has accumulated in a particular field. Therefore, in the theory of Ceci, knowledge is crucial for intelligence. (Nolen-Hoeksema, Loftus, Wagenaar, 2009, p. 444). Gardner does not explain well the role of knowledge in his theory of intelligence.

Gardner himself doubted the appeal his theory would have among educators: “At first glance, this diagnosis seems to sound the death knell for formal education. It is difficult to teach intelligence; What if there are seven? It`s hard enough to teach, even if something can be taught; What if there are clear limits and severe limitations to human cognition and learning? (Gardner & Hatch, 1993:xxiii) However, Gardner answered his question by pointing out that psychology does not control education, but only helps educators understand the conditions under which education takes place. According to Gardner, seven types of intelligence would allow seven types of training, rather than just one. Thorndike`s theory of multiple intelligence is based on two basic principles. Multiple intelligence theory (MIT) is a theory that has become very popular among educators and psychologists because it offers a number of possible explanations for children`s behavior. Each type of intelligence is analyzed in Gardner`s theory from different angles: the cognitive operations involved, the appearance of child prodigies and other extraordinary individuals, evidence of cases of brain damage, manifestations in different cultures, and the possible course of evolutionary development. Some types of brain damage can affect one type of intelligence and have no effect on others (Nolen-Hoeksema, Loftus, Wagenaar, 2009). The individual differences are explained by the assumption that humans are characterized by a unique combination of relatively stronger or weaker intelligences. However, Gardner notes that all normal people can apply all intelligences to some extent, and that adult abilities in different cultures represent different combinations of different intelligences (Gardner, 2004a). Louis Leon Thurstone proposed his multifactorial theory of intelligence in 1938.

Before the introduction of this theory, the concept of g-factor, i.e. general intelligence, proposed by a British psychologist, Charles Spearman, was more predominant.